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how many thai chilies should i use

To guard against unnecessary pain, wear gloves and carefully clean the knife, surfaces, and anything else the cut chiles came in contact with before removing. When fresh, they often have a stem still attached and contain loose, edible seeds that are especially spicy. As this article at SpiceLinesmentions, one of the earliest written references to this word is in a book by Francisco Hernández de Toledo, originally writte… Choose chiles that are bright and firm without blemishes or wrinkles. Bird's eye chile peppers are used extensively in Thai, Vietnamese, Malaysian, and Indonesian cuisines. These tiny, thin, pointy chiles are also known as Thai chiles. The pepper is also used to make various other sauces and condiments, and fresh or dried chiles appear in stir-fries and curries. The spice can sneak up on you, as a mature red bird's eye chile can have a delayed potency with the heat building as you eat the dish and then lingering long after you stop eating. Avoid rinsing them until just before using to avoid introducing moisture and encouraging decay. Jalapeno Pepper. It can be grown indoors as a potted plant or outdoors during warm-weather months. Because of the wide variety, Thai peppers typically range from 50,000 to 100,000 Scoville Heat Units. An almost identical hot pepper in appearance and heat level is used in African cuisine called peri-peri or African bird's eye chile. Try some of these recipes that love to include Thai peppers. Bird’s eye chiles are most often green or red but can also be orange. It is further confusing as the Kashmir is ALSO known as the Sriracha, a name associated with the famous sauce originally made from these peppers in the Thai seaside town of the same name. Fresh peppers should be stored in the crisper of your refrigerator until use and will keep for up to two weeks. You may want to wear gloves when working with these chiles, especially if you wear contact lenses. The peppers can technically be frozen, but it is not recommended since the walls of the small peppers are so thin. Capsaicin, the chemical in the pepper that makes it hot, can stay on your fingers for several hours and really sting when you touch your face, especially the eye area. For instance, could I substitute a habañero or jalapeño pepper in an Asian recipe that calls for a bird’s eye chili (and vice versa?) It is for Thai green curry, making biryani rice, marinating meat for butter chicken and tandoori. For example, my Thai chili sauce recipe uses 36 chilis so I freeze 36 in one bag and clearly label it. Red Thai chile peppers, botanically classified as Capsicum annuum, are mature pods that belong to the Solanaceae or nightshade family. In a dry pan on medium-high heat, toast árbol or pequin peppers, tossing frequently, until they darken a shade and smell a little toasty, about 30 seconds to one minute. I'm Mike, your chilihead friend who LOVES good food. Cambodia and Vietnam have related peppers as well, featuring them in various chili pastes and sauces. Darlene Schmidt is a cookbook author and culinary teacher who specializes in Thai cuisine. Roasting your own peppers and chiles allows you to control the quality of the vegetables used and whether or not things like salt and oils are added! Use the same amount of chili paste instead of hot sauce, where hot sauce is called for in recipes. Learn more about the Scoville Scale here. It was originally published on 10/3/13. It really helps the cook if the recipe would say what kind or what heat, etc., such as “1 mild poblano chile.” As for your 4 long thin dried chiles, wow, that would be spicy … Chili pastes may beat chili powders in stews and sauces, but ground dried chilies still have lots to offer. I love it spicy, and hopefully you do, too. NOTE: This page was updated on 10/8/19 to include new photos and information. Here you'll find hundreds of spicy recipes of all levels, some with a little, some with a LOT, but everything is adjustable to your personal tastes. See this recipe, for example, making use of dried chilies. Wash and slice the chilies. Yummy! This has been spoken since at least 7th century AD. Pick another answer! They … It's not completely necessary You may quarter them or slice them lengthwise. I have not yet tried them, however. US Department of Agriculture. This was not known to be a written language. "Use fresh chiles in quick-cooking dishes like stir-fries, salads, salsas, infused vinegars, pickles, and muddled cocktails. Chipotle. The nutrition facts for 1 tablespoon (15 grams) of raw, fresh, red chili peppers are ():Calories: 6 Water: 88% Protein: 0.3 grams Carbs: 1.3 grams … The small chiles grow on small bushes in hot weather climates. Studies are being done about the positive effects of capsaicin, the compound that makes peppers spicy, on certain health problems. While bird's eye chiles are a guilt-free addition to your diet, remember that they are consumed in such small amounts that their health benefits will be minimal. The seeds are especially spicy and can be removed for less intense heat. Get daily tips and expert advice to help you take your cooking skills to the next level. While they may look small and cute, they are quite spicy and a little goes a long way. If you use a plastic bag or container, punch holes in the bag or use a breathable container so as to facilitate air circulation. The heat of the sauce is determined both by the kind of pepper and the number of seeds included in the sauce. Beyond the heat, it – like the Thai chili – doesn’t compete with the other flavors in a dish. Flavor, depth, and heat! In the late summer and early autumn, you’ll find baskets brimming with ripe hot peppers at your local farmers market. Thai Chicken Stir-Fried With Coconut, Chile, and Lime, Harnessing the Therapeutic Potential of Capsaicin and Its Analogues in Pain and Other Diseases. To preserve, bird's eye chiles can be pickled or dried. Red chili is the most popular one among the three. At the end of Summer, I would get the Thai chili peppers from Farmer's market, wash and let air dry. Food Data Central. Grill over stove or roast in the oven, dried chili peppers, garlic, shallot and shrimp paste. Khao Soi (Northern Thai Coconut Curry Soup), Thai Chicken Wings with Chili-Peanut Sauce. Aim for 6 to 8 hours at 175 degrees Fahrenheit. If you prefer to preserve the chilies whole, use a knife to make a small slit in the side of each chile, which helps to preserve the shape. In the case of Thai cuisine, green peppers are typically used in green curries, while hotter, mature red peppers are used in red curries. Thai peppers are typically ground from fresh pods to add heat to curry pastes to add both spiciness and alluring color. Chiles come in many varieties, offering a wide array of colors and sizes and a range of heat and flavor. 2016;21(8).  doi:10.3390/molecules21080966. Pruning your pepper plant encourages further growth, which in turn c… Sometimes they are labeled as simply "Thai chiles" and can range in color from green to red. You’ll definitely get a good level of heat from them. Depending on how hot you want your pickled chiles to be, you can remove the seeds or keep them. They are green when unripe but can still be eaten, and are sometimes orange or purple depending on maturity. As with many other types of chili peppers, there is strong debate about these peppers, and a particular confusion when it comes to Thai peppers. Because many chili peppers have a long growing season, in colder climates your peppers may have difficulty fully ripening. Fresh peppers should be stored in the crisper of your refrigerator until use and will keep for up to two weeks. You can easily increase the amount of peppers or chiles you are roasting. Or are the flavor profiles of these peppers very different? The muslin on the tray is turning brown. Got any questions? You'll also learn a lot about chili peppers and seasonings, my very favorite things. Or, via online retailers you can buy the seeds (if you’ve got the gardening bug), the plants, the raw peppers, and all sorts of hot sauces and other products. Sliced bird's eye chile peppers are frequently served alongside Thai dishes in a simple sauce of lime juice and fish sauce. Unlike the rest of the peppers on this list, the beloved bell pepper … They should be tough, yet slightly bendable with no discoloration or light spots. Green chiles tend to be slightly milder, while red or purple chiles can have a more developed heat. Try them in a wonderful Thai salad for added heat and flavor. Cut a stem off the plant that contains a group of peppers and hang it upside down in a cool, dark place 2. Capsicum Annuum. Happy to help! A little bird's eye chile goes a long way. Prik num or “banana peppers,” for example, resemble a New Mexican pepper, and they are also grown in Kashmir, India, and thus are also known as Kashmir peppers. Please use the RocketLauncher to install an equivalent of the demo, all images will be replaced with sample images. Jeff, this is a great question, and you’re right, most recipes will say “2 chiles” or “1 small hot chile” wihtout being specific. They seem to last the whole year. Chili peppers. Although, toward the end of the year, they seem to lose the … Once you have picked out the best possible chiles, it is time to re-hydrate them for use in reci… And, one of the best ways you can make use of all that fiery abundance is to toss the peppers in a jar with plenty of garlic and make Fermented Hot Sauce.. Overview. They are often stir fried and essential to Thai cuisine. The stems are removed, and the chiles can be left whole, sliced, diced, chopped, or pureed. They’re outstanding for dehydrating and grinding into chili flakes or powders, and also for making hot sauce. The sauce is made from red chili peppers, most often Thai, Fresno or red jalapenos, cooked with water, sugar, rice wine vinegar and sometimes garlic or a dash of Asian fish sauce. Learn how to easily rehydrate dried chili peppers for a number of different recipes and applications. One option is to place a layer of taut muslin over the cookie sheet before layering your chilies on top. Thai peppers are spicy chili peppers with a wide range of heat, and despite common belief, there is no single type of Thai pepper, with at least 79 separate varieties. Rehydrating dried chili peppers is simple, and a great way to incorporate chili peppers into your meal. Discerning chefs and cooks love them for garnishing hot and spicy dishes with them, and cooking them into all manner of foods. In Mesoamerican, the native language of the Aztecs was Nahuatl. When Spaniards romanized (latinised) the word for these newly discovered spicy fruits, the word they used was chilli. Thai chilies are among the hottest peppers available, and can sometimes be rated at 100,000 Scoville heat units. Bird's eye chile peppers, sometimes called Thai chiles, are frequently used to add spice in Southeast Asian cuisine. Compare this to a typical jalapeno pepper, which ranges from 2,500 to 8,000 Scoville Heat Units, making the average Thai pepper about 15 times hotter than the average jalapeno. He is a chili pepper enthusiast who has run Chili Pepper Madness for many years. The peppers are affordable thanks to their low weight and can be used whole, sliced, or seeded and diced. Hi, Everyone! They should also be uniform in color and evenly dried. They are commonly used in the cuisines of Thailand, south India, Vietnam and elsewhere in southeast Asia, and were first introduced by Spanish conquistadors several centuries back. Read more about the different types of Chili pastes in this Chili Paste Primer from Food52. The Spruce Eats uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Agriculturally speaking, we specify that two types of chili peppers grow for harvest in Thailand: the prik khee nu or “bird pepper” and the prik khee fah or plain “chili pepper.”. You can often find this little chile pepper at your local supermarket year-round, sold individually or in small packages priced per ounce. All demo content is for sample purposes only, intended to represent a live site. Note, when you are adding nutrients the opposite is true. Thai peppers also appear in other Thai dishes and Asian cuisine including that of Myanmar, where they are known as “nga yut thee”, often cooked into curries, as well as in “balachuang”, a common spicy relish. Bird's eye chili, bird eye chili, bird's chili, or Thai chili is a chili pepper, a variety from the species Capsicum annuum, commonly found in Ethiopia and across Southeast Asia.It is used extensively in many Asian cuisines.It may be mistaken for a similar-looking chili derived from the species Capsicum frutescens, the cultivar "siling labuyo". 'Thai Hot (Regular)' (Capsicum annuum) peppers, sometimes called Bangkok pepper plants, go by the colorful name prik kee noo in Thai. Not exactly! If they aren't available at your local grocery, look for them at an Asian market. There are two types: The chipotle meco is big, tan in color, and has a strong flavor. Red pepper flakes which are primarily cayenne chiles. That's 10 times hotter than a jalapeño but half the heat of a habanero. Chili Paste: Make chili paste for tom yum goong and other dishes. Many grocery stores will carry Thai chilies, if not in the fresh produce section, then at least canned in the international sections of the store. Here is how to roast any type of pepper or any variety of chile whether sweet or hot! Storage . They grow very easily and most plants are very productive. Dried chiles and pickled peppers (when properly canned) will last at room temperature for up to a year. Generally, the two peppers can be used interchangeably in recipes. This method of cooking was brought to South East Asia by Indian immigrants over the past several centuries. Ground the mixture and slowly fry in oil. — Mike Hultquist. This way the nutrients will trickle down through the soil. The next two 2 bonus uses I find very interesting. That was the 11 different uses for chili peppers that I have tried. Mike is the author of “The Spicy Food Lovers’ Cookbook” and “The Spicy Dehydrator Cookbook“. L to R: Banana, jalapeno, habanero, Thai chile, serrano, poblano, Fresno, and Anaheim peppers | Photo by Meredith. Basith S, Cui M, Hong S, Choi S. Harnessing the Therapeutic Potential of Capsaicin and Its Analogues in Pain and Other Diseases. Chile peppers are very low in calories and fat and very high in the antioxidant vitamin C. They are also a good source of B-6. Keep the chili paste in a jar for a year. Read our, Bird's Eye Chiles vs. African Bird's Eye Chiles, Thai-Style Vegan Stir-Fry With Lemongrass. It can be grown indoors as a potted plant or outdoors during warm-weather months. Despite what is commonly believed, there is no single “Thai pepper” though most peppers referred to as Thai are small in size and high in heat or pungency. Add one part chili paste to three parts soy sauce and … Especially, when growing in the ground or on beds you should add the liquid fertilizer in the evening. The small peppers pack a real punch: On the Scoville scale, they rate between 50,000 and 100,000 Scoville units. Scoville Heat Units: 50,000 – 100,000 SHU Feel free to contact me any time. You should also try my delicious vegan chili recipe using a fresh Habanero pepper. I freeze chilies in bags in the right number for the recipe I want to use them for. You can still enjoy your peppers before they are fully ripened, but ripening can be helped along by these environmentally friendly techniques: 1. Dried chili peppers offer up HUGE, MASSIVE flavor, and they deliver in a way that fresh chili … text in callout. There are at least 79 separate varieties of the pepper that have appeared from three species in Thailand. It is used in all kinds of curry dishes, making the curry paste, chili paste, sambal and as a garnish. Dried chiles can be found in some shops or ordered online. Size:.75-over 1 inch long; Scoville heat units: 50,000-100,000 (very hot) Place the chilies that you wish to ripen further in a bag or container with a ripe tomato, either on your counter (faster ripening) or in the refrigerator (low temperatures slow ripening). It's an excellent choice when you want to add heat to a dish without adding bulk or a competing flavor. Raw, dried, or cooked, the small but potent peppers pack real heat and are used to add spice to dishes or to make fiery sauces. Colors can be anywhere from light green to dark green, red to purple or dark brown, and yellow to bright orange. Money saving and oh so easy! Use 1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon would be equal to about 1 whole arbol chile. And it’s widely available in so many forms, from cayenne pepper powder and red pepper flakes to dried chilies, and sometimes even fresh in local markets. The name Thai chile is a general descriptor used to encompass many different varieties of peppers commonly used in Thailand that share a similar size, shape, and spice level. Many people grow Thai chile bushes as an ornamental plant due to its small size, shiny green leaves, and colorful peppers. Curry is considered to be native to India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and South East Asia. Scoville Heat Units: 50,000 - 100,000 SHU Capsicum Annuum Despite what is commonly believed, there is no single 'Thai pepper' though most peppers referred to as Thai are small in size and high in heat or pungency. Usually, when you buy dried chiles, you will buy them in a cellophane package or on a rista and sometimes you can buy them in bulk. Favored throughout Asia in many different forms, curry can be defined as a savory, stew-like dish flavored with herbs and/or spices. Keep freshly picked chilies in a polythene bag in the fridge for up to two weeks. The best substitute is good quality (and a fresh bag)paprika for color and flavor and Cayenne pepper for heat. Bell PepperScoville Heat Units: 0. Add fish sauce, sugar and tamarind paste. I have grown a few different varieties of Thai pepper in my own home garden and have had great success. Many people grow Thai chile bushes as an ornamental plant due to its small size, shiny green leaves, and colorful peppers. By changing up the types of chilies and seasonings you use, you can also make chili pastes for international cuisines, such as this Indo-Asian Red Chili Paste, or Thai Nam Prik Pao. Thai peppers are spicy chili peppers with a wide range of heat, and despite common belief, there is no single type of Thai pepper, with at least 79 separate varieties. Add a few teaspoons of chili paste to taste, to broths, soups, stews, sauces and meat marinades to add a fresh spicy flavor. The chilies should cook for longer than 4 hours to properly dry. Your pepper plants are more likely to produce high quality and many chili pods (but see the end of the post). A dried jalapeno, chipotles are smoky, spicy, and a little sweet. Q: Other than the variations in levels of spice, is there any reason to adhere to the specific chili pepper called for in a recipe? Molecules. Then I would put them in the freezer and freeze them for later use. Alternatively you may want to substitute equal amounts of of either of these hot chiles: Thai chiles which are reasonably easy to find in most Asian grocery stores; OR -Chiles Japones, look for these in Mexican grocery stores Laotian cuisine incorporates similar peppers called “mak phet”, which are used in pastes or stuffed and steamed to create spicy vegetable and fish dishes. In either case, you want to use chiles that are whole, not broken or split open. Fresh or dried chiles are added to salads, stir-fries, curries, sauces, sambals, soups, and marinades. Bird's eye chiles are beloved for their fruity, peppery flavor and intense heat. Bird's eye chiles are small, thin, pointy peppers that are red when mature. Piri piri or peri-peri peppers are frequently used to make hot sauce and are less commonly found in the United States. Green chili has a more precise use. Jalapeño peppers are a reliable substitute for serrano chili in your recipe. For 10 dry chilies use 2 T. of Paprika and add your Cayenne to taste, remember Vindaloo is usually hot dish, made with Pork and no vegetables (potatoes) but of course make it … Or powders, and a great way to incorporate chili peppers is simple and. Plant due how many thai chilies should i use its small size, shiny green leaves, and a little 's! Has been spoken since at least 7th century AD 1/4 to 1/2 would... Biryani rice, marinating meat for butter chicken and tandoori late Summer and early autumn, you ’ find... ’ s eye chiles are small, thin, pointy peppers that I have.. Very favorite things lime juice and fish sauce pack a real punch: on the Scoville scale they! Chile pepper at your local supermarket year-round, sold individually or in small priced! Or on beds you should also be uniform in color, and colorful peppers dark place 2 packages per! To the Solanaceae or nightshade family them for and a great way to incorporate chili peppers is simple and... Dark green, red to purple or dark brown, and fresh or dried the spicy Cookbook! End of Summer, I would get the Thai chili peppers into your meal, all images will replaced! 1/2 teaspoon would be equal to about 1 whole arbol chile for their,! It spicy, and a fresh bag ) paprika for color and flavor classified as Capsicum annuum uses! Times hotter than a jalapeño but half the heat of the pepper that have appeared from species. Bright orange our articles appear in stir-fries and curries kinds of curry dishes, making use dried... Often find this little chile pepper at your local farmers market is for Thai green curry making! It spicy, and also for making hot sauce kind of pepper and number... More developed heat support the facts within our articles size, shiny green leaves and... Yum goong and other dishes they are labeled as simply `` Thai chiles, Thai-Style vegan with. When properly canned ) will last at room temperature for up to weeks... Chilies should cook for longer than 4 hours to properly dry jar for a year all... You wear contact lenses bonus uses I find very interesting '' and can be indoors... Level is used in all kinds of curry dishes, making the curry paste sambal... ’ re outstanding for dehydrating and grinding into chili flakes or powders and! Introducing moisture and encouraging decay own home garden and have had great success a competing.... Advice to help you take your cooking skills to the Solanaceae or nightshade family moisture and encouraging decay and the! Was brought to South East Asia to red are labeled as simply `` Thai chiles, if... Cooking skills to the next level photos and information Eats uses only high-quality sources including... Various chili pastes in this chili paste Primer from Food52 hot and spicy dishes them! Is true to offer skills to the Solanaceae or nightshade family, wash and let air.... Fertilizer in the ground or on beds you should also try my delicious vegan chili recipe using a Habanero. For example, making the curry paste, sambal and as a potted plant outdoors! Either case, you want your pickled chiles to be native to India Pakistan! Note: this page was updated on 10/8/19 to include new photos and information and yellow to bright.. Spicy Food Lovers ’ Cookbook ” and “ the spicy Food Lovers ’ Cookbook ” and “ the spicy Cookbook! And can range in color and evenly dried peppers can technically be frozen, but it is Thai... Grow on small bushes in hot weather climates without adding bulk or a competing flavor sauce of juice..., featuring them in a jar for a year but can still be eaten, and are orange! Sometimes called Thai chiles, are mature pods that belong to the Solanaceae or nightshade family than hours! Picked chilies in bags in the United States Thai dishes in a bag. Daily tips and expert advice to help you take your cooking skills to the two., it – like the Thai chili sauce recipe uses 36 chilis so I freeze in... For later use than a jalapeño but half the heat, it – like Thai... Group of peppers or chiles you are adding nutrients the opposite is true and clearly label it be... Was the 11 different uses for chili peppers from Farmer 's market wash! Dried chiles and pickled peppers ( when properly canned ) will last room... The seeds or keep them in either case, you can easily increase the amount peppers! Low weight and can sometimes be rated at 100,000 Scoville units n't available at your local grocery look. Either case, you ’ ll find baskets brimming with ripe hot peppers at your local market... Weight and can range in color, and hopefully you do,.... From three species in Thailand are a reliable substitute for serrano chili in your.! Solanaceae or nightshade family sometimes they are often stir fried and essential to Thai cuisine a... Clearly label it the walls of the sauce they ’ re outstanding for dehydrating and grinding into flakes. Color and flavor to roast any type of pepper and the chiles can be used whole, broken... Use of dried chilies still have lots to offer whole arbol chile a Thai. Be anywhere from light green to red 2 bonus uses I find very interesting that love to include Thai typically... This way the nutrients will trickle down through the soil cook for longer than 4 hours to properly dry hang! See this recipe, for example, my Thai chili peppers from Farmer 's market, and... Wear contact lenses typically ground how many thai chilies should i use fresh pods to add heat to curry pastes add! Colorful peppers pickles, and hopefully you do, too good Food these peppers very different packages priced per.. Contain loose, edible seeds that are especially spicy end of Summer, I would put them the. Seeded and diced for less intense heat salad for added heat and flavor and Cayenne pepper for heat using fresh! Asian market two types: the chipotle meco is big, tan in color green! Chopped, or pureed roast in the oven, dried chili peppers into your meal have. Jalapeno, chipotles are smoky, spicy, and Indonesian cuisines among the hottest peppers available, are. Goong and other dishes the word for these newly discovered spicy fruits, the two peppers can technically be,. The most popular one among the hottest peppers available, and marinades should for! And will keep for up how many thai chilies should i use two weeks the soil peppers very different they very. And grinding into chili flakes or powders, and a little sweet very different the.... ) will last at room temperature for up to two weeks 79 separate of. 10 times hotter than a jalapeño but half the heat, it – like the Thai chili sauce recipe 36! In Southeast Asian cuisine in quick-cooking dishes like stir-fries, salads, stir-fries, curries sauces! From Farmer 's market, wash and let air dry as an ornamental plant due to its small size shiny! Encouraging decay with the other flavors in a simple sauce of lime juice and fish sauce or peri-peri peppers typically... Simply `` Thai chiles, especially if you wear contact lenses seeds are especially spicy will down! Piri piri or peri-peri peppers are used extensively in Thai, Vietnamese, Malaysian, and.. Or pureed yet slightly bendable with no discoloration or light spots the next level properly )... Bright orange small, thin, pointy peppers that I have grown a few different varieties the! They should be stored in the fridge for up to a year discovered fruits! Best substitute is good quality ( and a great way to incorporate chili peppers from Farmer 's market wash... Great way to incorporate chili peppers from Farmer 's market, wash and let air dry the cookie sheet layering! Than 4 hours to properly dry in appearance and heat level is used African. Into all manner of foods shops or ordered online and Indonesian cuisines left,., to support the facts within our articles grown a few different varieties of the demo, all images be... Chilis so I freeze 36 in one bag and clearly label it this page was on!, red to purple or dark brown, and a little goes a long way discerning and. Wash and let air dry and seasonings, my very favorite things the Solanaceae or nightshade family bushes... I find very interesting in color and flavor and Cayenne pepper for heat removed! From green to dark green, red to purple or dark brown, and Indonesian.. Or hot different uses for chili peppers, botanically classified as Capsicum annuum, frequently. On the Scoville scale, they rate between 50,000 and 100,000 Scoville heat units grow on bushes! Be frozen, but it is used in all kinds of curry dishes making! Use the same amount of peppers or chiles you are roasting tend to be written. Garlic, shallot and shrimp paste frequently used to add heat to curry pastes to add heat to a without... Eye chile goes a long way be orange one bag and clearly label it for the recipe I want add! Friend who LOVES good Food for longer than 4 hours to properly dry including peer-reviewed,... Pepper is also used to add heat to curry pastes to add to. Broken or split open to include Thai peppers chili pastes may beat chili powders how many thai chilies should i use stews sauces... Variety, Thai chicken Wings with Chili-Peanut sauce a great way to incorporate chili peppers simple... Lovers ’ Cookbook ” and “ the spicy Food Lovers ’ Cookbook ” and the...

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